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Marine Genetic Resources: In collaboration with UNESCO, a side event on marine genetic resources was organized at the United Nations Working Group to Study Issues Related to Marine Biodiversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (30 May–3 June 2011). The side event took place on 3 June 2011. The event was chaired by the Ambassador of Mexico, H.E. Mr. Pablo Macedo Riba, and the Ambassador of New Zealand, H.E. Mr. Don MacKay. The event provided UN delegates information about the scientific, practical and legal aspects of marine genetic resources in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction. The following presentations were made:

Mapping of legal treaty provisions in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction:  This activity involved mapping out complicated legal provisions in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction with Geographical Information Systems, in collaboration with IUCN. Subject to funding, mapping of human uses in marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction may also be initiated. 

Biogeographic classification of open ocean and deep seabed environments

A study on acidification and fertilization

Review of the CBD's Marine and Coastal Biodiversity
Programme of Work

Study of the ecosystem approach in deep and open ocean environments: The project, together with the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), composed a review of the best available scientific studies on biodiversity conservation in marine areas. This review was published in the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) to develop a bioregional classification for the Southern Ocean and assisted in the development of the Global Open Oceans and Deep Sea Bed Biogeographic Classification. The project also had representation on the steering committee of the Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts, and Islands, and provided leadership to the working group on marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction. Research results fed into the processes of  the UN Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS) and are also used in the development and implementation of training courses on ecosystem approaches to ocean management.

Analysis of Recent Advances in Ocean Energy: This research involved analyzing the current state of the art technologies in Ocean Energy, highlighting the blocking regulatory problems that these technologies are encountering and in what areas it is desirable to have further government encouragement. This research was undertaken in close collaboration with leading companies in the Ocean Energy Industry, such as SeaGen Ltd. and WaveDragon Ltd.  Dr. David Leary (former UNU-IAS JSPS Fellow) at the University of New South Wales was a researcher on this project.  Expected outputs included two journal papers in environmental law journals and a follow up to the UNU-IAS Report that was presented at a side event in the UNFCCC COP14 in Poznan with final presentation at the COP15 in Copenhagen.

Estimating the economic damage and remedial costs of an increase in typhoon intensity in the Asian Pacific Region: This research used a computer model to simulate the effects of  (as yet hypothetical) increase in typhoon intensity on various economic and development parameters in the Asia-Pacific Region (such as downtime in economic activities or the need for increased investment in port infrastructure). The computer model is based on a Monte-Carlo Simulation developed by Miguel Esteban (UNU-IAS JSPS Fellow 2007-2009). Various applications of the model were submitted to various conferences.  The Monte-Carlo model might be applied to investigate further effects of climate change.

Economic and Sovereignty issues of the Disappearance of Island Nations in the Pacific: The main objective was to evaluate the sovereignty issues of the disappearance of island nations. Can a country still exist if it holds no land? Who controls the resources around a chain of islands that disappear? 

Risk Assessment of Breakwater Stability: In co-operation with Yokohama National University and Penta-Ocean Construction Ltd. This work was a continuation of the PhD thesis of UNU-IAS JSPS Fellow, Miguel Esteban who received the CEJ Award of 2007 (Best paper of the Year Award) for "Improvement in Calculation of Resistance Force on Caisson Sliding due to Tilting". This research is of great importance to assess the damage that can be suffered by coastal structures due to the effects of climate change.

Risk Assessment of Tsunami Damage: This research involved mostly hydraulic laboratory experiments.


UNU-IAS Report: Traditional Marine Management Areas of the Pacific in the Context of National and International Law and Policy.

Esteban, M., Takagi, H. and Shibayama, T. (2009). “Methodology for the Simulation of the Construction of a Breakwater Taking into Account Climate and Construction Accident Risks”. Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 51, No.1 (2009) pp 49-68.

Esteban, M., Nguyen Danh Thao , Takagi, H. and Shibayama, T. (2008) “Laboratory Experiments on the Sliding Failure of a Caisson Breakwater Subjected to Solitary Wave Attack”. PACOMS-ISOPE Conference, Bangkok, Thailand.

Webersik, C., Esteban M., Shibayama, T. (2009) "Measuring the Economic Loss due to Future Increase in Tropical Cyclones in East Asia: Potential for Conflict or Cooperation?" International Studies Association’s (ISA) 50th Annual Convention EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York USA.

Esteban M., Webersik, C., Shibayama, T. (2008)“Estimation of the economic costs of non adapting Japanese port infrastructure to a potential increase in tropical cyclone intensity”, IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2009.

Yamamoto, L. and Esteban M. (2009)“Possible economical and sovereignty issues of the disappearance of island nations”, IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2009.

Webersik, C, Esteban M., Shibayama, T. (2009) "The economic impact of future increase in tropical cyclones in Japan", IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 2009.

Book Chapter: Leary, D. and Esteban, M. (2009) “Climate Change and the Oceans: Gauging the Legal and Policy Currents in the Asia Pacific Region”.

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